The conductive glass is widely used in the field of Solar Panel Application, but the conductive glass has some shortcomings, such as ITO metal ions in the field of Solar Panel Application, such as indium oxide, tin oxide, tin oxide, commonly known as conductive glass. Easy to spontaneous diffusion, conductive glass on the infrared spectrum has a strong absorption and poor thermal stability of conductive glass.In addition, the conductive glass as a solar cell electrode, the need to be plated with a layer of platinum on its surface to enhance its Conductivity, which greatly increases the cost of preparation, the above-mentioned shortcomings of the conductive glass as a window electrode material of the development of Solar Panel Application.People need a substitute for conductive glass or replace platinum low-cost materials to promote the industrialization of Solar Panel Application Process. As a kind of ultra-thin, good light transmission and excellent electrical properties of the conductor material, metal oxide electrode is a better alternative materials.There have been on the graphene as a translucent conductive electrode research, In the alternative DSSC light anode of the light-transmitting ITO / FTO, the electrode platinum ITO / FTO, and organic polymer Solar Panel Application Photoelectrode ITO / FTO and so on.
In the perovskite structure used for high efficiency Solar Panel Application, the A is usually an organic cation such as HC (NH2) 2+ (FA +) or CH3NH3 + (MA +), and its main role is to maintain charge balance in the lattice The size of the A ion can change the size of the bandgap. When the A ion radius increases, lattice expansion, resulting in a corresponding increase in energy gap, the absorption side of the red shift, resulting in greater short-circuit current and about 16% of the high battery conversion efficiency. Metal ion B is usually Pb ion, Pb has good stability, but because of toxicity, it is often replaced by Ge, Sn, Ti. Sn, for example, Sn-X-Sn bond angle greater than Pb, narrower energy gap , ASnX3 shows a high open circuit voltage and good photoelectric characteristics, the voltage loss is very small. However, in order to solve the stability problem, Pb and Sn are combined with a certain proportion, which reduces the instability caused by Sn, and obtains higher conversion efficiency. In the same family element, the smaller the atomic number is, the less the element stability is. The halogen group X is usually iodine, bromine and chlorine, and the perovskite Solar Panel Application with iodine groups are less effective in mechanical properties (such as elasticity, strength, etc.) than those with bromine groups. The electron absorption spectra are broadened from Cl to I in turn, and the red shift of the energy gap increases successively due to the increase of the atomic weight and the covalent effect of the metal ion B bond. ABX3-type organic-inorganic halides have different structures at different temperatures.
Currently widely used translucent electrode materials for metal oxides such as indium tin oxide, but its infrared spectrum has a strong absorption, thermal stability is poor, fragile, and in use at the same time in the use of a layer of platinum To improve its conductivity, greatly increasing the cost of preparation. And graphene almost all of the infrared with high transparency, is conducive to enhance the utilization of light energy. Increased light transmittance leads to a decrease in carrier density, but since graphene has a very high carrier mobility, a certain conductivity can be ensured even if the carrier density is very small. The graphene can be prepared as a flexible transparent film electrode, which overcomes the weakness of indium tin oxide.
Graphene has good electrical properties and can be used as a receptor material in Solar Panel Application. The graphene can be combined with the organic polymer material to form a large donor interface, which is beneficial to the diffusion rate of the excitons in the cell and the increase of the carrier mobility, eliminating the secondary aggregation due to the damage of the charge transport path. Such as graphene can be combined with the donor material P3HT or P3OT to shorten the charge transport path; the acceptor material C60 can also be grafted onto the surface of the graphene to further enhance the electrical conductivity. Graphene as a receptor material, its structural defects will reduce the electron transport capacity, increase the recombination of electron holes, can not significantly improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the battery, thus reducing the defects of graphene, and consider the graphene and donor The interaction and matching of materials is the focus of attention.