Solar Panel Application (Solar Panel Application) is composed of one or more solar cells into a solar panel. A solar cell is a semiconductor device that converts light into electrical properties that converts solar energy radiated to its surface into direct current. The solar panel is the most basic component of a photovoltaic power generation system / product and is a solar photovoltaic The core part of the power generation system. Its greatest role is to convert solar energy into electricity storage into the battery.
The sun is a huge energy, it is the form of optical radiation per second to space to launch about 3.8 × 10MW of energy, 2.2 billion one projected to the earth. The sun is reflected by the atmosphere, after absorption, there are 70% transmitted to the ground. Nevertheless, the solar energy received in the year is still as high as 1.8 × 10 ^ 18kW · h.
Since the earth is the main body of the sun to provide the heat and light to survive, and since ancient times humans also know how to sun dry objects, and as a way to save food, such as salt and salted fish and so on. But in the fossil fuel reduction, it is only interested in the further development of solar energy. The use of solar energy has a passive use (light and heat conversion) and photoelectric conversion in two ways. Solar energy is a new type of renewable energy. The broad sense of solar energy is the source of many energy on earth, such as wind energy, chemical energy, water potential and so on.
Solar Panel Application
Crystal silicon panels: polycrystalline silicon solar cells, monocrystalline silicon solar cells.
Amorphous silicon panels: thin film solar cells, organic solar cells.
Chemical Dyestuffs: Dye Sensitive Solar Cells.
(1) monocrystalline silicon solar cells
Monocrystalline silicon solar cell photoelectric conversion efficiency of about 15%, the highest reached 24%, which is all kinds of solar cells in the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the highest, but the production cost is so large that it can not be widely used. Since monocrystalline silicon is typically coated with tempered glass and waterproof resin, it is rugged and durable for up to 15 years and up to 25 years.
(2) polycrystalline silicon solar cells
Polycrystalline silicon solar cell production process and monocrystalline silicon solar cell almost, but the polysilicon solar cell photoelectric conversion efficiency will have to reduce a lot of its photoelectric conversion efficiency of about 12% (July 1, 2004 Japan Sharp market efficiency of 14.8% Of the world 's most efficient polysilicon solar cells). From the production cost, than the monocrystalline silicon solar cells to be cheaper, easy to manufacture materials, save power consumption, the total cost of production is low, so get a lot of development. In addition, the life of polysilicon solar cells than the monocrystalline silicon solar cells shorter. From the performance and price ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cells also slightly better.
(3) amorphous silicon solar cells
Amorphous silicon solar cells in 1976 is the emergence of new thin film solar cells, and monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar cell production methods are completely different, greatly simplifies the process, silicon material consumption is small, lower power consumption, its main The advantage is that in low light conditions can also generate electricity. However, the main problem of amorphous silicon solar cells is the low efficiency of photoelectric conversion, the international advanced level of about 10%, and not stable enough, with the extension of time, the conversion efficiency of attenuation.
(4) multi-compound solar cells
Multicomponent compounds Solar cells are solar cells that are not made of single element semiconductor materials. (A, Ga) solar cells (c) copper indium selenium solar cells (the new multi-band gap gradient Cu (In, Ga), the total number of copper, Se2 thin film solar cells)
Cu (In, Ga) Se2 is a kind of semiconductor material with excellent performance and has the gradient energy band gap (the energy difference between the conduction band and the valence band). It can expand the solar energy absorption spectrum range and improve the photoelectric conversion effectiveness. Based on it can be designed to photoelectric conversion efficiency than silicon thin film solar cells significantly improved thin film solar cells. Can achieve the photoelectric conversion rate of 18%, and such thin film solar cells so far, no light radiation caused by performance degradation effect (SWE), the photoelectric conversion efficiency than commercial thin film Solar Panel Application increased by about 50 to 75 % Of the world's highest level of photoelectric conversion efficiency in thin-film solar cells.
A solar cell is a device that responds to light and converts light energy into electricity. There are many kinds of materials to produce photovoltaic effect, such as: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, selenium and other copper. Their power generation principle is basically the same, now with crystal silicon as an example to describe the optical power generation process. P-type crystalline silicon doped with phosphorus can be obtained N-type silicon, the formation of P-N junction.
When the light is irradiated on the surface of the solar cell, a part of the photons are absorbed by the silicon material; the energy of the photon is transferred to the silicon atoms so that the electrons are moved and the free electrons are formed on both sides of the PN junction to form a potential difference. When the external circuit , Under the action of this voltage, there will be a current flowing through the external circuit to produce a certain output power. The essence of this process is the process of converting photon energy into electrical energy.
First, the solar power generation There are two ways of solar power, one is light - hot - electric conversion, the other is the optical - electrical direct conversion.
(1) light - heat - electric conversion method through the use of solar radiation generated by thermal power, usually by the solar collector will absorb the heat into the refrigerant refrigerant, and then drive the turbine power generation. The previous process is the light-heat transfer process; the latter process is the heat-to-electrical conversion process, as is the case with ordinary thermal power generation. The disadvantage of solar thermal power generation is the low efficiency and high cost, it is estimated that its investment at least 5 to 10 times more expensive than ordinary thermal power plants. A 1000MW solar thermal power plant needs to invest 20 to 25 billion US dollars, an average of 1kW investment of 2000 to 2500 US dollars. Therefore, the application of small-scale special occasions, and large-scale use of the economy is very cost-effective, can not compete with ordinary thermal power plants or nuclear power plants.
(2) light - electric direct conversion method This method is the use of photoelectric effect, the solar radiation can be directly converted into electrical energy, optical - electrical conversion of the basic device is the solar cell. Solar cells are a device that converts solar energy directly into electrical energy due to the photovoltaic effect. It is a semiconductor photodiode. When the sun shines on the photodiode, the photodiode turns the solar energy into electricity. Current. When many batteries in series or in parallel can become a relatively large output power of the solar cell array. Solar cells are a promising new power supply, with permanent, cleanliness and flexibility of the three major advantages of solar cells long life, as long as the sun exists, solar cells can be an investment and long-term use; and thermal power, nuclear power generation Compared to solar cells will not cause environmental pollution; solar cells can be large and small simultaneously, large to millions of kilowatts of medium-sized power plants, small to only one for the use of solar cells, which is unmatched by other power